All Drug Offences

Drug-related offences are among some of the more serious charges prosecuted in Canada and more often than not, involve Charter litigation of some sort. Possession, trafficking, production and importing are all types of drug offences that can come with serious long term consequences if convicted.

All Weapons Offences

Weapons-related offences are also among some of the more serious charges prosecuted in Canada. The specific use of any item, depending on the context, can lead to allegations involving “weapons”.

Assault with a Weapon

Assault with a weapon is a more serious charge than “simple assault”, but is a very broadly defined type of offence. A person can be charged with assault with a weapon even if they did not actually strike the other person. Depending on the context in which it is used, any item can be considered a “weapon”.

Bail Hearings

The first step after a person is charged with any offence is determining how they will be released pending the outcome of their case. People who have criminal records or are facing serious charges are often held for a bail hearing.

Bail Reviews

If a person is denied bail, they may bring a Bail Review. Bail Reviews require a review of the bail hearing proceedings and the legal and factual issues involved at the bail hearing. They require the preparation of specific materials that must be filed with the reviewing Court.

Break & Enter

Breaking and entering is a very serious offence that has the potential to result in a maximum sentence of life imprisonment. “Home invasions” are a more serious category to this type of charge. A person can be charged with break & entering even if no items are stolen.

Charter Applications

Under Canadian laws, everyone is granted specific fundamental rights under The Charter of Rights and Freedoms. If applicable to the case, potential Charter violations could result in the exclusion of important evidence or a stay of proceedings.

Coroner's Inquests

A Coroner’s Inquest is a public hearing that investigates the who, what, when, where and how of a person’s death. Depending on the circumstances of the person’s death, sometimes a Coroner’s inquest is mandatory.

Domestic Assault

Charges involving a “domestic” relationship are sometimes more complex and are often dealt with differently in the criminal Courts than an assault against a stranger or a bar fight, for example.

Environmental Prosecutions

Environmental laws seeking to prevent pollution and protect resources place a very strict and heavy onus on both individuals and businesses to comply with certain standards. Violations for these regulatory types of charges can result in very hefty fines and occasionally, jail time upon conviction,

Extradition

If a person is alleged to have committed a crime in another country, extradition laws may demand that the person be “delivered” by Canada to that country to face the charges. Extradition hearings and appeals are a critical part of that process.

Fingerprint Destruction

When a person is charged with an offence, part of the arrest procedure involves the police taking your fingerprints and photographs. If you are found not guilty or your charges are withdrawn, or you receive a non-conviction result, you can apply to have your fingerprints and photographs taken upon arrest destroyed, sometimes after a specific period of time.

Fraud

Fraud encompasses a very broad spectrum of criminal activity under Canadian criminal law and can carry severe penalties, depending on the type of fraud and level of sophistication alleged. Findings of guilt for these types of offences also have serious implications on a person’s future including employment.

Highway Traffic Act Offences

The Highway Traffic Act are regulatory offences that can come with severe penalties such as hefty fines or even jail time. Convictions for most of these offences will often also effect a person’s vehicle insurance and ability to drive.

Immigration Prosecutions

Offences under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act can have very serious consequences.

Impaired Driving (DUI)

Impaired driving offences in Ontario are a criminal category of driving offences that are very strictly prosecuted and are subject to mandatory minimum penalties. These offences can involve more than what people think of as “drunk driving”.

Importing

Importing is one of the most serious category of offences under Canadian criminal and regulatory laws. Importing drugs is a common category of this offence. However, a person can also be charged with other “contraband” substances or items without appropriate licences and compliance with Canadian importing regulations.

Internet Related Charges

The widespread use of the internet in our society has expanded the types of offences people can face under this category. From “cyber-bullying” to criminal harassment to possession or transmission of child pornography, crimes involving the investigation or use of the internet can turn simple matters into extremely complex cases involving Charter litigation and privacy laws.

Murder / Culpable Homicide

Murder is the most serious crime a person can be charged with in this country. The amount of proof regarding the “planning” and “deliberation” of the murder is a key consideration for whether a person will be charged with first degree, second degree or manslaughter.

Pardons

If a person has been found guilty of any criminal offence, they may be eligible to apply for what is now called a Record Suspension after a certain period of time. The types of charges, the sentences the person received and the dates they were sentenced are all key factors in determining whether a person would qualify or not.

Possession

The law defines possession very broadly based on “knowledge, consent and control”. That is why a person can be charged with possession of illicit drugs or a weapon for simply being in the same place where the item was found.

Production

Regardless of how large or small the quantity of drugs, you can face jail time and other penalties for growing marijuana or producing other controlled substances. The severity of the punishment will depend on many factors, including the Accused prior history, the type of drug and the amount of drugs involved.

Professional Disciplinary Proceedings

Doctors, nurses, teachers and lawyers are a few examples of professionals who are governed by regulatory bodies that impose rules and bylaws that must be followed by their profession. Any rule-breaking can result in the person facing disciplinary sanctions that could impact whether or not they are allowed to continue working in that field.

Quasi-Criminal Prosecutions

There are many federal and provincial laws in addition to the criminal offences under the Criminal Code and Controlled Substances Act that result in penalties that can be as severe as the ones found in criminal law. Convictions for these “quasi-criminal” offences can include hefty fines and even jail time.

Robbery

Robbery often involves the use or threat of force while stealing or attempting to steal property. For example, a person can be charged with robbery for demanding another person’s phone or wallet, even if there is no weapon involved.

Sexual Assault

Sexual assault and other sex-related offences are among the most serious criminal charges a person can face. If convicted, these charges have serious penalties that include the potential for stigmatization and jeopardizing future job prospects.

Tax Prosecutions

Tax evasion and falsifying or filing misleading information in tax returns can result in criminal or quasi-criminal charges with severe penalties including hefty fines and sometimes even jail time. This is a complex category of offences involving overlapping areas of law and multiple statutes.

Theft

Theft is a broad category of property-related offences that can come with severe penalties depending on the circumstances. From a simple shop-lifting type of charge to large-scale “white-collar” fraud schemes, a conviction for theft can have serious long-term consequences for a person found guilty of this offence.

Trafficking

Drug Trafficking cases should be taken very seriously. In addition to imprisonment, a conviction for this offence can have significant consequences on one’s life and liberty. It is imperative to have an experienced defence lawyer to represent you if you are charged.

Youth Criminal Justice Act

The Canadian criminal justice system allows youth to be treated differently from adults in most situations when they are charged with a criminal offence. If a person is between the ages of 12 and 17 and are charged with a criminal offence, the prosecution of the case must follow the Youth Criminal Justice Act.